A muscle disease is any disease that affects the human muscular system. Primary muscle disorders result from abnormalities in the muscles themselves. Secondary muscle disorders are caused by another condition that may have triggered or caused the muscle disorder.
Primary muscular disorders include:
- muscular dystrophy
- Myasthenia gravis
- Amyotrophe Lateralsklerose (ALS)
Both types of muscular disorders affect the muscles and sometimes the nerves that supply them. Because of this, these diseases can eventually cause itloss of muscle mass, or loss of muscle mass. This can lead to loss of strength and function in one or more muscles. Paralysis can sometimes occur.
This article discusses primary and secondary diseases of the muscular system. He will also discuss the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment of muscle disorders.
About the muscular system
Every movement you make - speaking, walking, sitting, standing and even blinking - is controlled by your muscles.
You still have muscles you don't know. Examples include the muscles that control your posture and constrict blood vessels.
There are over 600 muscles in the human body. There are also three recognized muscle types.Each of the three types has its own specific functions.
- skeletal muscles: These muscles are connectedBonethrough tendons. Tendons are flexible but strong strands of tissue. Your bones move when skeletal muscles contract and pull on the tendons. Bones are also connected to other bones by ligaments. These resemble tendons and help hold the skeleton together.Myopathienare diseases that affect the skeletal muscles.
- Smooth muscle cells:This muscle type is responsible for involuntary muscle actions or actions beyond your control. Smooth muscle exists in places like the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels.These muscles perform tasks that your body needs to function.
- Herzmuskel:The heart muscle is a muscle type characterized by dark and light oblique branches. These branches are made up of stretched fibers. The heart muscle is located in the heart and is responsible for coordinated involuntary contractions. This allows the heart to pump blood efficiently.The heart is the only muscle in the body that continuously contracts.
Each muscle type serves a specific purpose. They walk for skeletal muscle. They digest food using smooth muscle. Your heart beats because of the heart muscle.
Different muscle types work together. When you run, you use your skeletal muscles to move your limbs. Your heart muscle makes your heart beat, and your smooth muscles help you breathe.
Click play to learn all about the muscular system
This video has been clinically reviewed byOluseun Olufade, MD
Primary muscle diseases
Primary muscle diseases are caused by muscle abnormalities. A muscle disease is considered primary when it is isolated and not due to other comorbidities.
MyositisIt is an inflammation of the muscles and associated tissues, including blood vessels.Polymyositis(PM) is a rare type of myositis. PM occurs mainly in people over the age of 20, more common in women.
PM is characterized by inflammation and muscle weakness. A person with this condition may have falls and difficulty getting up from falls. Other symptoms are chronic paindry cough, and ordifficulties swallowing.
PM has no known cause and there is no cure for the condition. Fortunately, the condition is treatable.
Dermatomiosit(DM) is a rare inflammatory muscle disease. It can affect people of all ages and genders, although it's more common in women.
Common symptoms of DM are:
- a characteristic eruption
- muscle weakness
- Inflamed and painful muscles
As with other inflammatory myopathies, the cause is unknown. There is no cure, but the condition can be treated with medication and other therapies.
Myositis is a term used to describe inflammation of the muscles. Inflammatory muscle diseases such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis are not curable but can be controlled.
muscular dystrophy(MD) is a group of hereditary myopathies. All of these conditions cause muscle wasting and weakness.
Some types of DM appear in infancy or childhood. Others may not appear until middle age or even later.
The symptoms are specific to the MD type. They can vary depending on the muscle group and the person affected.
All forms of DM get worse over time. Most people lose the ability to walk. There is no cure for DM, but the symptoms can be treated. Treatment can also prevent complications.
- physical therapy
- speech therapy
- Orthopedic aids such as canes or walking aids
Some people with DM have mild symptoms that slowly progress. Others have severe, disabling symptoms.
Myasthenia gravis(MG) is aAutoimmuneneuromuscular disease. Neuromuscular disorders are caused by problems with the way nerves and muscles work together.
In people with MG, the immune system mistakenly attacks the receptors that allow nerve cells and muscles to communicate. This disrupts nerve signals to muscles and causes muscle weakness.
MG is the most common chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease. 20 out of 100,000 people are affected.
The main symptom of MG is weakness in the voluntary skeletal muscles. There is no cure for MG, but treatment can control immune system activity.
MG's prospects are different for everyone. Some people have only mild symptoms. Others can be disabled. Early treatment can limit the progression of the disease.
Amyotrophe Lateralsklerose(ALS) is also called Lou Gehrig's disease. This group of rare neurological disorders affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
ALS affects the muscles responsible for voluntary movements. Most cases are diagnosed in people between the ages of 40 and 70.
By some estimates, at least 16,000 Americans have this condition.ALS has no cure and symptoms worsen over time.
Treatment can help control symptoms and prevent complications. However, typical life expectancy is only a few years after diagnosis.
Treatments for ALS include:
- speech therapy
- physical therapy
In severe cases, patients may need nutritional and respiratory support.
Myasthenia gravis and ALS are neuromuscular diseases. These diseases are caused by problems with the nerves that control muscles.
RhabdomyolysisIt is a disease that causes the destruction of skeletal muscles. This breakdown causes the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream.
Myoglobin is a protein that stores oxygen in muscles. Too much myoglobin in the blood can cause kidney damage.
Causes of rhabdomyolysis are:
- infection and inflammation
- Genetic and Metabolic Disorders
Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and the presence of complications. Kidney damage caused by rhabdomyolysis may not be reversible.
Cardiomyopathy, also called myocardial disease, is a disease that affects the heart muscle.
Emcardiomyopathy, the heart becomes abnormally enlarged, thick, and/or stiff. This makes it harder for the heart muscle to pump blood efficiently.
Eventually, this can lead to heart failure. Blood and fluids can back up into the lungs and other parts of the body. Cardiomyopathy can also cause abnormal heart rhythms and heart valve problems.
Sarcopenia, also called geriatric muscle disease, is common in older adults. Other types of muscle disorders are less common in older adults.The risk of sarcopenia in seniors aged 65 to 70 is about 14%. In people over 80 years of age, this risk is 53%.
Sarcopenia causes loss of muscle mass and strength. Risk factors include:
- poor diet
- chronic disease
- decreased hormone levels
Some people experience sudden muscle weakness. In others, it occurs slowly over many years.
Sarcopenia can be diagnosed in a number of ways, including:
- Physical examination
- medical history
- Blood tests to look for inflammation, genetic disorders, low hormone levels, or low vitamin D levels
- Imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Electrical activity test
Physical therapy, an improved diet, and medication can improve the condition.
Older adults become more prone to sarcopenia as they age. Poor diet, chronic illness, and decreased hormone levels are thought to contribute to this risk.
Secondary muscle diseases
Muscle discomfort sometimes occurs as a result of other, more serious health conditions. They can occur with many different diseases, including:
- infectious diseases
- Endocrine disorders or diseases of the glands
- metabolic diseases such asDiabetes
- Immune diseases such as HIV/AIDS
- Vascular diseases, diseases of the blood vessels
Primary muscle disorders, which may also be secondary to another health condition, include:
- Myasthenia gravis
Some secondary muscle diseases can even affect the respiratory muscles.
Mild disorders can affect a single muscle, a muscle group, or an entire muscle system. They can be permanent or temporary. A person can have mild or severe symptoms.
Secondary muscle diseases are diagnosed in the same way as primary diseases. Treatment includes treating the underlying cause and treating the secondary condition.
Symptoms of diseases of the muscular system
One of the first signs of muscle problems is muscle weakness. This means that the muscle lacks strength and cannot do its job. Many different diseases can cause muscles to become weak.
Sore muscles that improve with home therapy are usually not a cause for concern. Pain from a serious injury or a serious illness that affects the whole body often requires medical attention.
See a doctor right away if you notice any of the following symptoms:
- Muscle pain with breathing problems
- muscle weakness
- high fever
Muscle spasms, spasms, or pain may also occur in people with muscle disordersconclusion of contract.
Other symptoms of muscle disorders include:
- Muscle wasting or muscle wasting
- movement and balance problems
- Numbness, tingling or painful sensations
- double vision
- drooping eyelids
- Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing
- Mainly breathing problemsDyspnea, that's shortness of breath
If you suffer from muscle weakness, consult a doctor. Anyone suffering from sudden and severe muscle weakness should see a doctor urgently.
Causes of muscle diseases
There are many different causes of muscle disorders. Some muscle disorders are genetic. Genetic conditions can be inherited or the result of a new genetic mutation in the affected person.
Some muscle disorders are autoimmune disorders that occur when the immune system attacks its own healthy muscle tissue.
Sometimes the cause of muscle disease is unknown.
Other causes of muscle disorders are:
- Overuse or injury to muscles
- some cancers
- nervous diseases
Regardless of the cause, most muscle disorders are incurable. However, treatment can reduce a person's symptoms and pain, maintain mobility, and improve quality of life.
Diagnosis of muscle diseases
Muscular diseases are frequently diagnosedElectromyography(IN G). An EMG measures the electrical activity in the muscles. This can help identify neuromuscular abnormalities.
EMG can diagnose a number of problems, including:
- muscle diseases
- Nervous and motor problems
- Degenerative diseases or diseases that get worse over time
During an EMG test, a thin needle called an electrode is inserted into the skin and muscle tissue. Once the needle is in place, the patient is asked to contract or relax the muscles. The electrode detects electrical activity.
A nerve conduction velocity test can be done with an EMG. This test measures the speed of electrical impulses moving through your nerves. In this way it can be determined whether the cause of the symptoms is a muscle disease or a nerve disorder.
If your doctor suspects you have a muscle disorder, a muscle strength test may be done. This helps determine if muscle weakness or other muscle problems are present.
Additional tests may include:
- blood teststo measure antibodies and muscle enzymes that may be specific to one or more disorders
- Muskelbiopsie, when a small sample of muscle tissue is taken and sent for testing
- MRI image(MRI) to show areas of abnormal muscles
treatment of muscle diseases
Most diseases of the muscles are incurable. The good news is that they can often be treated and treated.
Treatment goals may include relieving symptoms, slowing disease progression, and improving quality of life.
Treatment may include drug therapy. These can include immunosuppressants, drugs that reduce or prevent overactivity of the immune system. These drugs can be used to treat some muscle and nerve disorders. They can also be used for conditions that affect both nerves and muscles.
Corticosteroidsand other medications may be given to reduce muscle spasms and spasms.
Your doctor may also recommend physical and occupational therapy to treat symptoms and, if necessary, surgery to correct muscle damage.
Muscular disorders can occur alone or due to other disorders. There are many different types of muscle disorders, including disorders that cause muscle inflammation and neuromuscular disorders.
People with muscle disorders may experience muscle weakness, problems with movement and balance, and other symptoms such as numbness, drooping eyelids, and difficulty swallowing or breathing.
Muscle disorders have many causes, including genetics and autoimmune disorders. Sometimes the cause is not known.
Muscle disorders are often diagnosed with a test that measures the electrical activity in the muscles. These disorders are usually incurable, but many of them can be controlled.
A word from Verywell
The outlook for people with most muscle disorders can be positive. In many cases, treatment can effectively control most symptoms, including muscle pain and weakness.
Your long-term prospects depend on your condition and how it affects your muscle function. Talk to your doctor to learn more about your condition, helpful treatments, and your outlook.
Types of motor neuron diseases